John Mock & Kimberley O'Neil



Table I - Existing Legislative Basis for National Parks in Pakistan

Northern Areas Wildlife Preservation Act (1975)

Section 2.k.

"National Park" means comparatively large areas of outstanding scenic merit and natural interest with the primary object of protection and preservation of scenery, flora and fauna in the natural state to which access for public recreation, education and research may be allowed.

Section 7.

Acts restricted in a national park. No person shall:
  • (i) reside in a national park;
  • (ii) hunt, kill or capture, or be found in circumstance showing that it is his intention to hunt, kill or capture any animal in a national park;
  • (iii) carry any fire arm or other hunting weapon in a national park;
  • (iv) introduce any domestic animal or allow any domestic animal to stray into a national park. Any domestic animal found in a national park may be destroyed or seized by, or on the orders of an authorized office, shall be disposed of in accordance with the instruction of the Chief Wildlife Warden;
  • (v) cause any bush or grass fire (except at designated places) or cut, destroy, injure or damage in any way any tree or other vegetation in a national park;
  • (vi) cultivate any land in a national park;
  • (vii) pollute any water in, or flowing in a national park;
  • (viii) introduce any exotic animal or plant into a national park;
  • (ix) pick any flower or remove any plant, animal, stone or other natural object from a national park;
  • (x) write on, cut, carve, or otherwise deface any building, monument, notice board, tree, rock or other object, whether natural or otherwise, in a national park;
  • (xi) fail to comply with the lawful orders of an officer while in a national park; and
  • (xii) discard any paper, tin, bottle, or litter of any sort in a national park except in a receptacle provided for the purpose.

North-West Frontier Province Wild-Life Protection, Preservation, Conservation and Management Act (1975)

Section 16.

National Park
  • (1) With a view to the protection and preservation of scenery, flora and fauna in the natural estate, Government may, by notification in the official Gazette, declare any area which is the property of Government or over which Government has proprietary rights to be a national park and may demarcate it in such manner as may be prescribed.
  • (2) A national park shall be accessible to public for recreation, education and research subject to such restrictions as Government may impose.
  • (3) Provision for access roads to and construction of rest houses, hostels and other buildings in the national park along with amenities for public may be so made and the forest therein shall be so managed and forest produce obtained as not to impair the object of the establishment of the national park.
  • (4) The following acts shall be prohibited in a national park:
    • (i) hunting, shooting, trapping, killing or capturing of any wild animal in a national park or within three miles radius of its boundary;
    • (ii) firing any gun or doing any other act which may disturb any animal or bird ordoing any act which interferes with the breeding places;
    • (iii) felling, tapping, burning or in any way damaging or destroying, taking, collecting or removing any plant or tree therefrom;
    • (iv) clearing or breaking up any land for cultivation, mining or for any other purpose; and
    • (v) polluting any water flowing in and through the national park.

IUCN Categories of Protected Areas (1978)

II. National Park

To protect outstanding natural and scenic areas of national and international significance for scientific, educational, and recreational use. These are relatively large natural areas not materially altered by human activity, and where commercial extractive uses are not permitted.

IUCN Categories of Protected Areas (1994)

II. National Park

Protected area managed mainly for ecosystem protection and recreation. Natural area or land and/or sea, designated to:
  • (a) protect the ecological integrity of one or more ecosystems for present and future generations;
  • (b) exclude exploitation or occupation inimical to the purposes of designation of the area; and
  • (c) provide a foundation for spiritual, scientific, educational, recreational and visitor opportunities, all of which must be environmentally and culturally compatible.
Forward to Table II - History of Court Cases Involving Chitral Gol National Park
Back to Table of Contents for Mountain Protected Areas in Pakistan: The Case of the National Parks


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